New September Releases
Roman Army of the Mid-Republic
Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus (236/5 – 183 BC) was a Roman general and later consul who is often regarded as one of the greatest military commanders and strategists of all time.
His main achievements were during the Second Punic War, and is best known for defeating Hannibal at the final battle of Zama in 202BC. This victory was one of the feats that earned him the agnomen “Africanus”.
His conquest of Carthaginian Iberia culminated in the Battle of Ilipa in 206BC against Hannibal’s brother Mago Barca.
Roman Army of the Mid-Republic
Aztec Empire - Conquest of America
In the Viking world, berserkers were those who were said to have fought in a trance like fury, a characteristic which later gave rise to the modern English word “berserk”, meaning “furiously violent or out of control”.
In battle, the berserkers were subject to fits of frenzy. They would howl like wild beasts, foamed at the mouth, and gnawed the iron rim of their shields. According to belief, during these fits they were immune to steel and fire, and made great havoc in the ranks of the enemy. When the fever abated they were weak and tame. Accounts can be found in the sagas.
When Viking villages went to war in unison, the berserkers often wore special clothing, for instance furs of a wolf or bear, to indicate that this person was a berserker, and would not be able to tell friend from foe when in "bersærkergang". In this way, other allies would know to keep their distance.
VIK-005 Bare-Shirt Berserker - The old Norse form of the word was “berserkr”, which likely means “bear-shirt”, or as a thirteen century historian interpreted as “bare shirt”, which could refer to those warriors who went into battle without armour.
VIK-006 Bear Warrior Berserker - Other historians reinforce their theory of the “bear shirt” by the fact that it is believed berserkers drew their power from the bear and were devoted to a bear cult, which was once widespread across the northern hemisphere.
The bear-warrior symbolism survives to this day in the form of the bearskin caps worn by the guards of the Danish monarchs.
VIK-007 Ultheomar Berserker - Wolf warriors appear among the legends of many countries. The Germanic wolf warriors have left their trace through shields and standards that were captured by the Romans and displayed in Rome.
The warriors wearing the skins of wolves were actually called “Ulfheonar” (wolf coat), which was another term associated with berserkers.
These warriors were said to wear the pelt of a wolf when they entered battle, and are sometimes described as Odin’s special warriors.
Age of Arthur - Vikings
Age of Arthur - Norman Knights
Whiskey, Scalps and Beaver Pelts - Mountain Men
A mountain man was an explorer who lived in the wilderness. They were instrumental in opening up the various Emigrant Trails (widened into wagon roads) allowing Americans in the east to settle the new territories of the far west by organized wagon trains traveling over roads explored and in many cases, physically improved by the mountain men and the big fur companies originally to serve the mule train based inland fur trade.
Mountain men were most common in the North American Rocky Mountains from about 1810 through to the 1880s (with a peak population in the early 1840s). Approximately 3,000 mountain men ranged the mountains between 1820 and 1840, the peak beaver-harvesting period. While there were many free trappers, most mountain men were employed by major fur companies. The life of a company man was almost militarized. The men had mess groups, hunted and trapped in brigades and always reported to the head of the trapping party.
This man was called a "boosway", a bastardization of the French term bourgeois. He was the leader of the brigade and the head trader.
Whiskey, Scalps and Beaver Pelts
THE FIRST BATTLE OF BULL RUN, 1861
THE 11th REGIMENT NEW YORK VOLUNTEER INFANTRY
The 11th Regiment New York Volunteer Infantry was an infantry regiment of the Union army in the early years of the American Civil War. The regiment was organized in New York City in May 1861 as a zouave regiment, known for its unusual dress and drill style, by Colonel Elmer E. Ellsworth, a personal friend of US president Abraham Lincoln.
The troops were drawn from the ranks of the city’s many volunteer fire companies, and the unit was also known as the Ellsworth Zouaves, First Fire Zouaves, First Regiment New York Zouaves, and US National Guards.
The unit was among the first to occupy the territory of a Confederate state when it captured Alexandria, Virginia on May 24th 1861, less than 24 hours after the commonwealth seceded from the Union.
The regiment then went on to suffer extensive casualties during the First Battle of Bull Run, during the fighting on Henry House Hill, and whilst serving as a rearguard for the retreating Union army.
The regiment would later be stationed near Hampton Roads during the Peninsula Campaign, but experienced little fighting. It was sent back to New York city in May 1862, and the regiment was mustered out of service on June 1862.
There were several attempts to reorganize as a light infantry regiment through the summer of 1863, and many new enlistees were involved in suppressing the New York Draft riots. This was to fail and the enlistees were transferred to the 17th New York Veteran Volunteer Infantry Regiment.
Ellsworth’s Fire Zouaves marched to Manassas in their zouave jackets and trousers, with red firemen’s shirts and blue fezzes. In the July heat the zouave jackets were abandoned, and most men continued in their red or white firemen’s shirts, and some even added havelock-covered kepis to replace the fezzes. With the officers dressed in Grey, this gave the unit, a motley, multi coloured appearance.
11th Regiment New York
THE FIRST BATTLE OF BULL RUN, 1861
Thomas Jonathan “Stonewall” Jackson (January 21st, 1824 – May 10th 1863) served as a Confederate general during the American Civil War, and became one of the best known Confederate commanders after General Robert E. Lee.
Jackson was to play a prominent role in nearly all military engagements in the Eastern Theatre of the War until his death, and had a key part in winning many significant battles.
Jackson rose to prominence and earned his most famous nickname at the First Battle of Bull Run (First Manassas) on July 21st 1861. As the Confederate lines began to crumble under heavy Union assault, Jackson’s brigade provided crucial reinforcements on Henry House Hill, demonstrating the discipline he had instilled in his men. Although under heavy fire for several continuous hours, Jackson received a wound breaking the middle finger of his left hand, about midway between the hand and the knuckle, the ball passing on the side next to the index finger.
The troops of South Carolina commanded by Gen. Barnard Elliott Bee Jr. had been overwhelmed, and he rode up to Jackson in despair, exclaiming, “They are beating us back!”. Jackson replied “Then, we will give them the bayonet!” As he rode back to his command, Bee exhorted his own troops to re-form by shouting, “There is Jackson standing like a stone wall. Let us determine to die here, and we will conquer. Rally behind the Virginians!”
Jackson’s brigade, which would from then on be known as the “Stonewall Brigade”, stopped the Union assault and suffered more casualties than any other Southern Brigade that say.
After the battle Jackson was promoted to Major General and given command of the Valley District with its headquarters in Winchester.
Knights of the
Skies - LFG Roland C.II
The LFG Roland C.II, usually known as the Walfisch (Whale), was an advanced German reconnaissance aircraft of World War I. It was manufactured by Luft-Fahrzeug-Gesellschaft G.m.b.H.
LFG, later changed their name to Roland to avoid confusion with LVG (Luft-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft).
They were responsible for some of the most aerodynamic and innovative aircraft designs of the Great War. The “Walfisch” was designed as aerodynamically as possible at the time, which resulted in a smooth fuselage featuring many compound curves and mounting the top wings to the fuselage to avoid drag from the struts.
The C.II had much lower drag than comparable aircraft of its time. It featured a monocoque fuselage built with an outer skin of two layers of thin plywood strips at an angle to each other (known as a Wickelrumpf, or "wrapped body" design)
This had both lower drag and better strength per weight than typical aircraft of the time, but it was relatively slow and expensive to build. (This approach was further developed in the de Havilland Mosquito of World War II.) The deep fuselage completely filled the vertical gap between the wing panel center sections, eliminating any need for cabane struts commonly used in biplanes, and gave the aircraft its "whale" nickname. Struts and wires were reduced, without suffering the weight penalty of cantilever wings, like those used on the pioneering all-metal Junkers J 1 of late 1915. There was even some attempt to flair the wings into the fuselage, to eliminate dead air space, a feature prominently missing from the Schneider Trophy contestants of the following decade. The engineer in charge of the design was Tantzen, who was a student of Ludwig Prandtl, the founder of mathematical aerodynamics and the one to introduce the concept of boundary layer.
The C.II was powered by a single 160 hp (120 kW) Mercedes D III, providing a top speed of 165 km/h (103 mph), a ceiling of 4,000 metres (13,000 ft) and an endurance of four hours.
The C.II entered service in the spring of 1916. Operationally, handling was reported as difficult but performance was relatively good. Due to the crew positions with eyes above the upper wing, upward visibility was excellent, but downward visibility was poor. It was also used in a fighter escort role and had a crew of two, pilot and observer/gunner.
Because of its speed, when it was first introduced, it could be intercepted only from above. Because of the lack of downward visibility, it was best attacked by diving below and coming up at it
Albert Ball, whose first victim was a C.II, said in the latter half of 1916 that it was "the best German machine now".
It was flown by a number of famous German aces including The Red Baron,, Manfred Von Richthofen.
ACE-53, was flown by Lt. Seibert (pilot) and Hptm. Pfleger (observer) of the Bavarian Feldfliegerabteilung 5, Western Front, Autumn 1916. The aircraft had an interesting fishscale motive fuselage, which obviously refered to the Roland C.II’s nickname “Whalefish”, which was painted over the standard light blue-grey camouflage.
Lt. Richard Seibert was killed in action on December 11th 1916.
As well as the two crewmen discussing their flight plan, in the pipeline are also two action crew for the plane. These will be sold separately, and will be suitable for the ACE-50 as well as the new ‘fishscale’ version.
Please note the figures for the Roland CIIa will not be available until early 2021.
Knights Of The Skies - WWI
Design of the Panzer I began in 1932 and mass production proceeded in 1934. Intended only as a training tank to introduce the concept of armoured warfare to the German army, the Panzer I saw combat in Spain during the Spanish Civil War, in Poland, France, the Soviet Union and North Africa during the Second World War.
Experiences with the Panzer I during the Spanish Civil War helped shape the German Panzerwaffe’s invasion of Poland in 1939, and France in 1940.
The Panzer I’s performance in armoured combat was limited by its thin armour and light armament of two machine guns, which were never intended for use against armoured targets, rather , being ideal for infantry suppression, in line with inter-war doctrine. Although lacking in armoured combat as a tank, it formed a large part of Germany’s mechanized forces and was used in all major campaigns between September 1939, and December 1941, where it still performed much useful service against entrenched infantry and other ‘soft’ targets, which were vulnerable to machine gun fire.
Although it was quickly surpassed by more powerful successors, the Panzer I’s contribution to the early victories of Nazi Germany during WW 2 was significant.
As the war progressed new types of more modern and efficient combat vehicles were developed and built. The Panzer I’s quickly became obsolete and were relegated to secondary roles, both at the front and the rearguard.
The Panzer I was used as a medical tank for casualty evacuation for the panzer units on the front. These tanks had no armament at all, with the turrets removed, and white circles with a red cross in the middle were painted on the sides and rear, to denote their assignement to frontline medical platoons.