WWII - German Armour
The Panzerkampfwagen VI Ausf B. Tiger II, commonly referred to as the King Tiger, was the successor to the legendary Tiger I heavy tank. It was designed to be even more heavily armed and armored than its iconic predecessor. Like the Panther tank, it incorporated design improvements gleaned from combat experience on the Eastern Front. The King Tiger was armed with the finest tank gun of WW2, the dreaded long barreled 8.8 cm KwK. L/71. Coupled with excellent sighting optics, this cannon was capable of destroying any Allied tank with ease, while it's well sloped armor provided excellent protection. In fact, German armaments officials during the war stated the King Tiger's front profile was impervious to all Allied weapons and there is no evidence that the King Tiger's 150mm thick glacis plate was ever penetrated in combat. To defeat the King Tiger, Allied tanks would have to outflank it in order to take shots at its weaker side and rear armor. In the hands of a skilled crew, the King Tiger was a fearsome opponent.
This massive armament and extremely thick armor came at the price of weight, and at almost 70 tons the King Tiger was the heaviest production tank of World War Two. Due to engine technology limitations of the time, the King Tiger was underpowered, since it used the same 750 horsepower Maybach HL 230 engine found on the much lighter Tiger I and Panther tanks. Additionally, the massive weight of the King Tiger put enormous strain on engines, gears and drivetrains and led to early malfunctions and teething problems. Often, these issues were exasperated by inexperienced drivers (with only days or a few weeks of training) who did not adhere to engine limitations. Contrary to popular belief, though, the King Tiger was no lumbering behemoth. Once combat experience was gained, mechanical improvements were implemented and by the end of the war the operational availability rate of King Tigers was on par with the Panzer IV and actually better than the Panther. Furthermore, post-war testing showed the King Tiger displayed similar maneuverability to the Panther and Panzer IV and was actually more maneuverable than many Allied tanks.
Ultimately, too few King Tigers were produced to effect the outcome of the war, but the King Tiger remains one of the most deadly tanks of World War Two.
Late in 1944 through the end of the war, German panzers were routinely rushed from the factory assembly centers directly to the front lines, often without time for the Panzer troops to apply turret numbers or other markings. This King Tiger is meant to represent one such vehicle. It features a historically accurate "soft edge" tri-camo pattern with the iconic camo dots that became widely known as "Ambush" or "Licht und Schatten" (Light and Shade) camo. The only other markings are Balkenkreuz (Baltic Cross) applied to each turret side at the factory. Historic pictures abound of King Tigers with nothing but ambush camo and turret Balkenkreuz on both the Western and Eastern Fronts.
Consequently, this ambush camo King Tiger is extremely flexible for collectors. While the inspiration for this model was a Kampfgruppe Peiper tank that fought with King Tiger #213 during the Battle of the Bulge, the model is just as accurate depicting a King Tiger from numerous other units. Some examples include the famous schwere Panzerabteilung 503 "Feldherrnhalle" fighting in Hungary or schwere SS Panzerabteilung 503 fighting in Berlin during the final desperate battle against the Russians.
Furthermore, most 1/35 scale King Tiger decals are compatible with this model if collectors want to depict their favorite specific unit.
This JJDESIGNS King Tiger comes with the following features:/p>
- all hatches are fully operable and both open and close
- fully detailed turret interior and driver's crew compartment
- fully detailed and opening engine compartment
- removable side mudguards that can be individually attached to allow maximum display possibilities
- removable track links to attach to the side of the turret
- adjustable cupola mounted anti-aircraft machine-gun with historically correct armor sleeved MG-34
WWII - German Aircraft
The FOCKE-WULF FW 190 is a German single seat, single engine fighter aircraft which was designed by Kurt Tank at Focke-Wulf in the late 1930’s and widely used during the Second World War.
Along with its well known counterpart, the Messerschmitt BF 109, the FW190 became the backbone of the Jagdwaffe (fighter Force) of the Luftwaffe.
The FW190 A started flying operationally over France in August 1941 and quickly proved superior in all but turn radius to the Spitfire Mk. V. the main frontline fighter of the Royal Air Force, particularly at low and medium altitude.
The FW190 maintained superiority over allied fighters until the introduction of the improved Spitfire Mk. IX.
In November 1942.the FW190 made its air combat debut on the Eastern Front, finding much success in fighter wings and specialized ground attack units from October 1943.
The FW190 was well liked by its pilots. Some of the Luftwaffe’s most successful fighter aces claimed many of their kills while flying this plane., including Otto Kittel, Walter Nowotny and Erich Rudorffer. The FW190 had greater firepower than the BF-109 and at low to medium altitude, superior manouverability according to the opinion of German fighter pilots who flew both. It was regarded as one of the best fighter planes of the Second World War.
This aircraft has a winter whitewash over the standard camouflage. It was with this aircraft that Dortenmann crash landed at Orsha Süd Air base on the 6th of February, 1944, after losing three feet off his port wing in a collision with a Soviet fighter.
In a rear hemisphere attack against his target, and at a height of some 200m, he misjudged his distance. His intended target was probably a fighter flown by Capt Ivan Mikhailovich Astakhov of 49 IAP.
Having been killed in this encounter, the collision with Black “7” was classified as a “taran” attack and considered Astakhov’s twelfth victory (another seven being shared). He was awarded a posthumous Hero of the Soviet Union.
It was Dortenmann’s first confirmed victory. Prior to his transfer to the west, he shot down a further fourteen Soviet aircraft, including four Il-2 Sturmoviks. He totaled 38 kills, and was awarded the Iron Cross.
Roman Army of the Late Republic
By the first decades of the 1st century, the COHORT had replaced the maniple as the standard tactical unit of the legions.
The three lines of the manipular legion were combined to form the cohort, which generally numbered about 480 to 500 men. Maniples and centuries continued to be used as military and administrative subdivisions for the cohort.
There were six centuries in a cohort, which were now all 80-men strong.
Each Centuria was commanded by a Centurion, and also included an Optio, a Signifer and a Cornicen
The Centurions also appointed the bravest men as standard bearers, or Signifers.
A signifer was a standard bearer of the Roman legions. He carried a signum (standard) for a cohort or century. Each century had a signifer so there were 59 in a legion. Within each cohort, the first century's signifer would be the senior one.
The signum that he carried was the military emblem of that unit. It had a number of phalarae (disks or medallions) along with a number of other elements mounted on a pole. The pole could be topped with a leaf-shaped spear head or later a manus (open human hand) image denoting the oath of loyalty taken by the soldiers. It sometimes included a representation of a wreath, probably denoting an honour or award.
The task of carrying the signum in battle was dangerous, as the soldier had to stand in the first rank and could carry only a small buckler. It was that banner that the men from each individual century would rally around. A soldier could also gain the position of discentes signiferorum, or standard bearer in training. If the signifer was lost in battle, the whole unit was dishonored.
In addition to carrying the signum, the signifer also assumed responsibility for the financial administration of the unit and functioned as the legionaries' banker. He was paid twice the basic wage.
An Optio was an officer appointed by the centurion, and was stationed at the rear of the centuria to keep the troops in order. Their duties would include enforcing the orders of the centurion, taking over the centurion's command in battle should the need arise, supervising his subordinates, and a variety of administration duties. Optio pay was double the standard legionary pay and they were the most likely men to replace the centurion if the position became vacant.
A Centurion at this time can be distinguished from other Legionaries by several methods. He usually wore greaves, and the crest of his helmet was usually turned so it ran transversely across the helmet. His sword was worn on the left and his dagger on the right which is the opposite of a Legionaire.
Each Centuria would also contain a hornblower or Cornicines. A cornicen (plural cornicines) was a junior officer in the Roman Army. The cornicen's job was to signal salutes to officers and sound orders to the legions. The cornicines played the cornu (making him an aeneator). Cornicines always marched at the head of the centuries, with the signifer. The cornicines were also used as assistants to a centurion (like an optio). The cornicen was a duplicary or a soldier who got double the basic pay of the legionary.
The legion was now composed of ten cohorts rather than thirty maniples, and numbered an average of about 5,000 men.
Roman Army of the Late Republic
Enemies of Rome
Enemies of Rome
Anglo Saxon/Danish Shieldwall
Anglo Saxon/ Danish Shieldwall
Age of Arthur - Vikings
Age of Arthur - Norman Knights
El Cid and the Reconquista
Cid and the Reconquista
Al-Andalus was the Muslim -ruled area of the Iberian Peninsula.
The name more specifically describes the different Arab or Berber states that controlled these territories at various times between 711 and 1492, though the boundaries changed constantly as the Christian Reconquista progressed.
Nearly all of the warring factions in Spain used local Andalusian troops as allies in their armies. Christian kingdoms often called upon their neighbouring states to assist in campaigns against Moorish troops, or they were also found joining the jihads in the armies of the invading Almoravids and Almohads.
The Almoravids, also known as the Murabits, were a fundamentalist Islamic movement of the 11th and 12th Centuries. Founded by Ibn Yasin, in southern Morocco, they combined devotion to Islam with a fierce military tradition, and a desire to conquer. In 1070, the Almoravids established their capital city at Marrakesh, which at the time, was little more than a mosque in the desert surrounded by the tents of the faithful.
Cid and the Reconquista
The Crow, called the Apsáalooke in their own Siouan language, or variants including the Absaroka, are Native Americans, who in historical times lived in the Yellowstone River valley, which extends from present-day Wyoming, through Montana and into North Dakota, where it joins the Missouri River.
Pressured by the Ojibwe and Cree peoples (the Iron Confederacy), who had earlier and better access to guns through the fur trade, the Crow had migrated to this area from the Ohio Eastern Woodland area of present-day Ohio, settling south of Lake Winnipeg. From there, they were pushed to the west by the Cheyenne. Both the Crow and the Cheyenne were pushed farther west by the Lakota (Sioux), who took over the territory west of the Missouri River, reaching past the Black Hills of South Dakota to the Big Horn Mountains of Wyoming and Montana. The Cheyenne eventually became allies of the Lakota, as they sought to expel European Americans from the area. The Crow remained bitter enemies of both the Sioux and Cheyenne.
From about 1740, the Plains tribes rapidly adopted the horse, which allowed them to move out on to the Plains and hunt buffalo more effectively. However, the severe winters in the North kept their herds smaller than those of Plains tribes in the South. The Crow, Hidatsa, Eastern Shoshone and Northern Shoshone soon became noted as horse breeders and dealers and developed relatively large horse herds. At the time, other eastern and northern tribes were also moving on to the Plains, in search of game for the fur trade, bison, and more horses. The Crow were subject to raids and horse thefts by horse-poor tribes, including the powerful Blackfoot Confederacy, Gros Ventre, Assiniboine, Pawnee, and Ute.
Their greatest enemies became the tribes of the Blackfoot Confederacy and the Lakota-Cheyenne-Arapaho alliance.
Whiskey, Scalps and Beaver Pelts
American Revolution - 12th Massachusetts Regiment
12th Massachusetts Regiment
American Civil War - 11th Regiment New York
11th Regiment New York
American Civil War - THE ARMY OF THE SHENANDOAH, 1st VIRGINIA CAVALRY REGIMENT
The 1st Virginia Cavalry Regiment was formed in the spring of 1861 around the nucleus of several cavalry companies from the valley of Virginia which had been placed under the command of J.E.B. Stuart.
Regimental organization was completed by the appointment of Stuart as Colonel on 16th July 1861.
The unit then comprised ten companies, lettered A-M, of men enlisted for Confederate States service for one year.
The regiment was reorganized 22nd April 1862, and served thereafter through most of the civil war.
J.E.B. Stuart was appointed Lieutenant Colonel, infantry, Provisional Army of Virginia, at Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia on 8th May 1861. He was appointed Colonel of 1st Virginia Cavalry on 16th July 1861. He was assigned to command the cavalry of the Army of the Shenandoah during the first battle of Manassas on July 21st 1861, and was appointed Brigadier General, Confederate States Army on 24th September 1861.
The 1st Virginia Cavalry Regiment was often illustrated in the newspapers during the early days of the war. Especially during the First Manassas when Stuart, with companies H and B under R. Welby Carter and John Blair Hoge, made a dashing charge upon the 11th New York Zouaves. Artists on both sides were inspired by the episode, and reporters dubbed the companies the “Black Horse Cavalry”.
The troopers performed well during this engagement, and it was in no time, especially under the inspiring leadership of Stuart and Fitzhugh Lee, that they grew into one of the crack mounted outfits of the Confederate service.
1st Virginia Cavalry Regiment