In the aftermath of their defeat of the Persian invasion, Scythian power grew considerably, and they were to launch campaigns against their Thracian neighbours. The Greek cities of the Northwestern Black Sea coast and parts of the Crimea were also invaded and were largely unsuccessful, as the Greeks united under the leadership of the city of Panticapaeum and put up a vigorous defence.
The 4th century BC was a flowering of Scythian culture. The Scythian King Ateas managed to unite under his power the Scythian tribes. He was to conquer territories along the Danube as far as the Sava river and established a trade route from the Black Sea to the Adriatic. The scythians apparently obtained most of their wealth from their control over the slave trade, but their trade routes were instrumental in opening up the silk road trade
The westward expansion of Ateas brought him into conflict with Philip II of Macedon, who took military action against the Scythians killing Ateas in battle. Philip’s son Alexander the Great continued the conflict with the scythinas, and in 331BC his general Zopyrion invaded Scythian territory with a force of 30,000 men, but was routed and killed by the scythians near Olbia.
In the aftermath of conflict between Macedon and the Scythians, the Celts seem to have displaced the Scythians from the Balkans, whilst in south Russia, a kindred tribe, the Sarmatians, gradually overwhelmed them.
Scale 1:30 / 60MM