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Enemies of Rome

The Gauls were Celtic peoples inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD).

The Gauls emerged around the 5th century BC as the bearers of the La Tène culture north of the Alps (spread across the lands between the Seine, Middle Rhine and upper Elbe). By the 4th century BC, they spread over much of what is now France, Belgium, Switzerland, Southern Germany, Austria and the Czech Republic by virtue of controlling the trade routes along the river systems of the Rhône, Seine, Rhine, and Danube, and they quickly expanded into Northern Italy, the Balkans, Transylvania and Galatia. Gaul was never united under a single ruler or government, but the Gallic tribes were capable of uniting their forces in large-scale military operations. They reached the peak of their power in the early 3rd century BC. The rising Roman Republic after the end of the First Punic War increasingly put pressure on the Gallic sphere of influence; the Battle of Telamon of 225 BC heralded a gradual decline of Gallic power over the 2nd century, until the eventual conquest of Gaul in the Gallic Wars of the 50s BC. After this, Gaul became a province of the Roman Empire, and the Gauls were culturally assimilated into a Gallo-Roman culture, losing their tribal identities by the end of the 1st century AD.

The carnyx may be described as a type of war trumpet. This instrument was a valveless horn that was made of beaten bronze, and can be easily recognized due to its shape. Another distinct feature of the carnyx is its bell, which often depicts the head of some animal. Such animals include boars, dragons, serpents, birds and wolves. The bells of the carnyx were fashioned after these animals so as to strike fear into enemy warriors. Additionally, some bells were made with joints at the jaws, which would cause the animal’s head to move when the instrument was blown, thus adding to the psychological effect it had on the enemy. Whilst the sight of the carnyx struck fear into the hearts of the enemy, it was the sound of it, which has been described as lugubrious and harsh, that probably had a greater impact on enemy morale. The instrument’s significant height also allowed it to be heard over the heads of the participants in battles or ceremonies.

Enemies of Rome


The Panzer I was a light tank produced in Germany in the 1930s. The name is short for the German Panzerkampfwagen I (“armored fighting vehicle mark I”), abbreviated PzKpfw I. The tank’s official German ordnance inventory designation was SdKfz 101 (“special purpose vehicle 101”).

Design of the Panzer I began in 1932 and mass production began in 1934. Intended only as a training tank to introduce the concept of armored warfare to the German Army, the Panzer I saw combat in Spain during the Spanish Civil War, in Poland, France, the Soviet Union and North Africa during the Second World War, and in China during the Second Sino-Japanese War. Experiences with the Panzer I during the Spanish Civil War helped shape the German Panzerwaffes’ invasion of Poland in 1939 and France in 1940. By 1941, the Panzer I chassis design was used as the basis of tank destroyers and assault guns. There were attempts to upgrade the Panzer I throughout its service history, including by foreign nations, to extend the design’s lifespan. It continued to serve in the Spanish Armed Forces until 1954.

The Panzer I’s performance in combat was limited by its thin armour and light armament of two machine guns. As a design intended for training, the Panzer I was not as capable as other light tanks of the era, such as the Soviet T-26. Although weak in combat, it formed a large part of Germany’s tank forces and was used in all major campaigns between September 1939 and December 1941. The small, vulnerable light tank would be surpassed in importance by other German tanks, such as the Panzer IV, Panther, and Tiger; nevertheless, the Panzer I’s contribution to the early victories of Nazi Germany during World War II was significant.

Lesson learned from the Panzerkampfwagen I provided the German designers and manufacturers with valuable experience in designing and producing the next generation of new panzers that were soon to come. Although, Panzerkampfwagen I was not a truly valuable combat tank, it proved to be an excellent training tank and most of the panzer crews were trained on Panzerkampfwagen I until the end of the war or operated it in combat as their first armoured vehicle.

There have been many requests over the years for jjDesigns to produce Pz 1A’s for the Second World War. Although GA-10A has generic markings, there will be other tanks produced with specific unit markings, to represent tanks from The Invasion of Poland through and even Chiang Kai-shek’s National Government Army in China.

THE INVASION OF POLAND, 1st September 1939

On 1 September 1939, Germany invaded Poland The invasion was swift and the last Polish pockets of resistance surrendered on 6 October. The entire campaign had lasted five weeks and the success of Germany’s tanks in the campaign was summed up in response to Hitler on 5 September: when asked if it had been the dive bombers who destroyed a Polish artillery regiment, Guderian replied, “No, our panzers!”

GA-11A represents a Panzer Division tank from the opening of the war in Poland. The Panzer I Ausf A represents a fighting vehicle of the 5. Kompanie while the Panzer I Ausf B (available at a later date) represents a staff tank of the I. Abteilung, Panzer Regiment 35.

The 4th Panzer Division, as part of the XVI. Armeekorps, was one of the first divisions of Heeresgruppe Süd (Army Group South) to cross the Polish border on September 1st, 1939. It fought against Polish cavalry at the Battle of Mokra and was the first German unit to reach Warsaw. It suffered heavy casualties in its initial direct assault to take the city and in subsequent attempts to take the city fighting alongside the Liebstandarte SS Adolf Hitler Regiment. Later it fought in the Battle of the Bazura (Battle of Kutno), the largest battle of the Polish campaign.

After Poland, the division fought against the British Expeditionary Force during the Battle of France and then on the Eastern Front for the remainder of the war.


I apologize that many customers were not able to get the first Jagdpanter. I have decided to re-stock this item, but as I had already made several small changes to the original prototype I was unable to produce an exact replica of the GA-01 model.
For example the front machine gun on the original GA-01 did not move. I have now re-worked the prototype so that the front machine gun now moves. Therefore I have decided to re-stock the model and re-number the tank #121.
If you are still interested in purchasing this new version, contact us. All pre-orders for GA-01(121) received by the 31st August will be produced.


Interwar Aviation

The Boeing P-12/F4B was an American pursuit aircraft that was operated by the United States Army Air Corps and United States Navy. Though best known in later years for producing large bomber or transport aircraft, Boeing produced a series of excellent fighters from 1923 to 1933. The most famous of those biplane fighters, the F4B, was the refinement of design experience gained from its FB, F2B and F3B predecessors. Nimble, rugged and reliable, the F4B-4’s debut coincided nicely with advances in carrier operations aboard the new carriers Lexington (CV-2) and Saratoga (CV-3). The aircraft remained the Navy and Marine Corps’ first-line fighter until replaced by faster and more powerful Grumman biplanes.

VF-6B, known as the “Fighting Six” had as their mascot, “Felix The Cat”, a well known cartoon character of the time. The lit bomb he carries relates to when the squadron first started as a Bombing Squadron in 1929. “Felix The Cat” is one of the longest serving squadron insignia in the US Navy.

The white tails of the aircraft were the squadron’s carrier identification colour during their service aboard the USS Saratoga.

The Navy Bureau Number (BuNo.) 9020 was the Section Leader in the Squadron’s Fourth Section, whose identification colour was black. The Section leader carried a full black cowl, the second aircraft displayed a top half black cowl, and the third a bottom half black cowl. All aircraft displayed wing chevrons in the section colour, and their individual aircraft number on their upperwing.


In December 1930, the US Bureau of Aeronautics directed that all aircraft under construction be painted using a scheme of section markings that would visually identify their position in the squadron. The normal squadron strength was 18 aircraft. This was divided into two divisions of three sections, and each section was made up of three aircraft. The first division was made up of sections, 1,2,3 and the second division was made up of sections 4,5,and 6. Normally the squadron Commander would lead the first division as Section Leader of Section 1, and his Executive officer would lead the second division as Section Leader of Section 4.


The first instruction to allocate a colour to all squadrons operating from the same carrier came in 1935, as it was creating confusion by the different tail colours that squadrons were selecting. In the 1935 directive the colours were white for USS Saratoga.


USS Saratoga (CV-3) was a Lexington-class aircraft carrier built for the United States Navy during the 1920s. Originally designed as a battlecruiser, she was converted into one of the Navy’s first aircraft carriers during construction to comply with the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922. The ship entered service in 1928 and was assigned to the Pacific Fleet for her entire career. Saratoga and her sister ship, Lexington, were used to develop and refine carrier tactics in a series of annual exercises before World War II. On more than one occasion these included successful surprise attacks on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. She was one of three prewar US fleet aircraft carriers, along with Enterprise and Ranger, to serve throughout World War II.

Inter-War Aviation Collection

War of the Roses

Wars of the Roses 1455-1487

Battle of the
Plains of Abraham

The 78th Regiment, (Highland) Regiment of Foot otherwise known as the 78th Fraser Highlanders was a British infantry regiment of the line raised in Scotland in 1757, to fight in the Seven Years’ War . The 78th Regiment was one of the first three Highland Regiments to fight in North America.
The regiment was raised in Inverness by Lieutenant-Colonel Simon Fraser of Lovat as the 2nd Highland Battalion and ranked as the 62nd Regiment of Foot in 1757. It was re-ranked as the 63rd Regiment of Foot later in the year. The regiment embarked for Halifax, Nova Scotia in July 1757 and, having been renamed the 78th (Highland) Regiment of Foot, or Fraser’s Highlanders in June 1758, it took part in the Siege of Louisbourg later that month, the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in September 1759 and the capture of Montreal in August 1760. It was disbanded in Quebec in December 1763. In the Seven Years’ War, the regiment at 103 soldiers killed and 383 wounded.

Battle of the Plains of Abraham

WWI – Egypt 195

Egypt 1915

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