Archive for June, 2018

New First Legion June Releases!

Sunday, June 10th, 2018

New June Releases!
Agincourt – French Knights

Agincourt – French

Wild West – Towns Folk

Wild West

Painted 75mm Connoisseur Figure

Unpainted Metal Kits – Scale 60mm and 75mm

New Thomas Gunn May / June Releases!

Sunday, June 10th, 2018


We have a beautiful all metal Onager with four crew figures that can be used in a variety of settings. Because these legionnaires are not being used in a formation setting we could individualise them a little more than we normally do, hope you like the little touches these figures have. There will be more crew to follow later on in the year please note.

Glory of Rome

Ancient Egyptians

The start of a mini series featuring the Ancient Egyptians in the time of Ramses, a Pharaoh who ruled Egypt around 1300 BC during what is now known as the 19th Dynasty. Ramses is still considered one of the most successful Pharaohs of his time and established Egyptian military control in parts of Canaan, Nubia and most spectacularly at Qadesh where he defeated the Hittite King Muwatallis despite being ambushed, Ramses rescued victory from the jaws of defeat and crushed the Hittites. During the early part of his reign Ramses also defeated the Sea People who were ravaging ships travelling to Egypt and plundering their cargoes. Our first four figures comprise a scene from this historic defeat where the King of the Sea People was executed along with other elite officials. However, his soldiers who had so impressed Ramses during the battle, were pressed into service with the Egyptian army where willing or executed along with their King. Later on in this series we will produce an Egyptian chariot as well as some fighting Egyptians and more enemies of Egypt to combat them.

Enemies of Rome


Our first Russian for the Napoleonic wars and also from one of the elite regiments, the Pavlovski Grenadiers. This regiment was one of the few allowed to keep their old style Mitre hats following uniform changes from early to the later empire uniform regulations. After the 1812 campaign they were made part of the Russian Imperial Guard, a great honour for a Line Grenadier Regiment.

NAP045 our first Grenadier will be the first parade style Grenadiers released before we move onto action and fighting poses.

The master for this figure was painted in Russia and we hope the extra cost was worth it for what is a great looking figure. These Russian Napoleonic’s should fit in nicely size-wise with your First legion Russians.


World War One

World War One

WWII Allied

  • GB009 Bantam Jeep – Mickey Mouse
  • CLUB024 Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery – Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery as he should be done. A fine looking figure with the master for this piece commissioned in Russia. Montgomery as most history buffs willl know commanded the 8th Army to victory at El Alemein and led British forces during the Normandy campaign. He was famous for sporting 2 badges on his beret and we have faithfully captured his unique look in this great looking figure.

WWII Allied Forces

WWII Pacific

WWII Pacific

New Britain’s June Releases!

Sunday, June 10th, 2018

American Civil War

We have just received our first shipment of Britain’s New Releases in over 18 months. Thank you to all that pre-ordered and showed extreme patience while waiting for these to arrive. The good news is the wait was worth it and the quality is excellent. We are hoping for another shipment in about 6 – 8 weeks, fingers crossed. Do not know what it contains yet, but until it lands on our dock we will not be announcing.

American Civil War

Museum Collection

Museum Collection

Grenadiers of the 2nd Nassau

Grenadiers of the 2nd Nassau-Usingen Regiment

New Thomas Gunn Wings of War

Sunday, June 10th, 2018

Thomas Gunn Wings of War
Soviet Sopwith Snipe

The Sopwith 7F.1 Snipe was a British single-seat biplane fighter of the Royal Air Force (RAF). It was designed and built by the Sopwith Aviation Company during the First World War, and came into squadron service a few weeks before the end of the conflict in late 1918.

The Snipe was not a fast aircraft by the standards of its time, but its excellent climb and manoeuvrability made it a good match for contemporary German fighters. One of the most famous incidents in which the Snipe was involved occurred on 27 October 1918 when Canadian Major William G. Barker attached to No. 201 Squadron RAF flew over the Forêt de Mormal in France.

Barker’s Snipe (No. E8102) had been brought with him for personal evaluation purposes in connection with his UK-based training duties and was therefore operationally a “one-off”. The engagement with enemy aircraft occurred at the end of a two-week posting to renew his combat experience as Barker was returning to the UK. While on his last operation over the battlefields of France, Major Barker attacked a two-seater German aircraft and swiftly shot it down. However, Barker was soon attacked by a formation of at least 15 Fokker D.VIIs, an aircraft widely considered to be the ultimate German fighter design of the First World War. The ensuing melee was observed by many Allied troops. In the engagement, Barker was wounded three times, twice losing consciousness momentarily, but managing to shoot down at least three D.VIIs before making a forced landing on the Allied front lines. Barker was awarded the Victoria Cross for this action. The fuselage of this Snipe is preserved at the Canadian War Museum, Ottawa, Ontario.

Following the Armistice with Germany that ended the First World War, Sopwith Snipes formed part of the British Army of Occupation, returning to the United Kingdom in August/September 1919, while Snipes replaced Camels in four home defence squadrons based in the United Kingdom. This force was quickly run down, however, and by the end of 1919, only a single squadron, No 80 was equipped with the Snipe.

  • WOW182 Soviet Sopwith Snipe – In 1919, the Snipe took part in the Allied intervention on the side of the White Russians during the Russian Civil War against the Bolsheviks, twelve Snipes being used by the RAF mission in north Russia. At least one of the RAF Snipes was captured by the Bolsheviks and pressed into service which is also one of our featured models.
    WOW182 One of the best known post-war Snipes was serial number E6351, which was assigned to the 1st Fighter Detachment of the newly formed Soviet Air force. Ace Pilot Grigoriy Stepanovich Sapozhnikov with 5 kills to his credit, had the name “Nelly” painted on the starboard side of the fuselage behind the cockpit, Stepanovich was later killed in a flying accident. This variant of the Snipe comes with a free figure of Lenin as per the pictures attached.

Wings of War

RAF Sopwith Snipe

WOW195 Features a late variant Snipe operating from RAF Hawkinge in 1923 in a colourful post-war silver colour scheme. Comes with free sample of GW085 ‘Aircraftsman Lawrence’ (of Arabia) as he might have appeared in the 1920’s painting an aircraft. Lawrence a distinguished soldier of the Great War sought anonymity in the newly formed RAF in 1922, he was interviewed by Flying Officer W.E. Johns (The Biggles books author) who rejected Lawrence for using a false name. Lawrence left the recruiting station and returned some time later with an RAF messenger and a mystery hand written note ordering Johns to admit Lawrence to the RAF. Lawrence was enlisted under the name of Ross and by all accounts thoroughly enjoyed his time until he was discharged in 1925 and joined the Tank Corps. Lawrence died in a motor bike crash in 1935 shortly after leaving the army. GW085 will be available later this month as a separate figure for those of you who wish to purchase him

Wings of War

Mitsubishi A5M Navy Type 96 Carrier-based Fighter

The Mitsubishi A5M Navy Type 96 Carrier-based Fighter, company designation Mitsubishi Ka-14, was a Japanese carrier-based fighter aircraft. It was the world’s first monoplane shipboard fighter to enter service and the direct predecessor of the famous Mitsubishi A6M “Zero”. The Allied reporting name was Claude.

The aircraft entered service in early 1937, and soon saw action in aerial battles at the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War, including air-to-air battles with the Republic of China Air Force’s Boeing P-26C Model 281 “Peashooters” in the world’s first aerial dogfighting and kills between monoplane fighters built of mostly metal.

Chinese Nationalist pilots, primarily flying the Curtiss Hawk III, fought against the Japanese, but the A5M was the better of almost every fighter aircraft it encountered. Though armed with only a pair of 7.7 mm machine-guns, the new fighter proved effective and damage-tolerant, with excellent manoeuvrability and robust construction. Later on A5M’s also provided much-needed escorts for the then-modern but vulnerable Mitsubishi G3M bombers. The Mitsubishi team continued to improve the A5M, working through versions until the final A5M4, which carried an external underside drop tank to provide fuel for extended range.

The A5M’s most competitive adversary in the China air war was the Polikarpov I-16, a fast and heavily armed fighter flown by both Chinese Air Force regulars and Soviet volunteers. Air battles in 1938, especially on 18 February and 29 April, ranked among the largest air battles ever fought at the time. The battle of 29 April saw 67 Polikarpov fighters (31 I-16s and 36 I-15 bis) against 18 G3Ms escorted by 27 A5Ms. Each side claimed victory: the Chinese/Soviet side claimed 21 Japanese aircraft (11 fighters and 10 bombers) shot down with 50 Japanese airmen killed and two captured having bailed out while losing 12 aircraft and 5 pilots killed; the Japanese claimed they lost only two G3Ms and two A5Ms shot down with over 40 Chinese aircraft shot down.

Almost all A5Ms had open cockpits. A closed cockpit was tried but found little favor among Navy aviators. All had fixed, non-retractable undercarriage, wheel spats were a feature of standard fighters but not training aircraft.

A5Ms remained in service at the beginning of the Pacific war, US intelligence sources believed the A5M still served as Japan’s primary Navy fighter, when in fact the A6M ‘Zero’ had replaced most of the Claudes on first-line aircraft carriers. However Japanese carriers and Kōkūtai (airgroups) continued to use the A5M until production of the Zero caught up with demand. On 1 February 1942, the US carrier USS Enterprise launched air-strikes at Japanese air & naval bases on Roi and Kwajalein Atolls in the Gilbert Islands. During these actions, Mitsubishi A5Ms shot down three Douglas SBD dive-bombers, including the aircraft of Lt-Cdr Halstead Hopping, CO of VS-6 Squadron. The last combat actions with the A5M as a fighter took place at the Battle of the Coral Sea on 7 May 1942, when two A5Ms and four A6Ms of the Japanese carrier Shōhō fought against US aircraft that sank their carrier. In the closing months of the war most remaining A5M airframes were used for kamikaze attacks.

Our 1/30 scale Claudes come in 2 different liveries, WOW192 in the very colourful markings of an aircraft based on the Carrier Soryu during the Pearl Harbour attack and WOW193 in more traditional muted Japanese naval colour scheme, flown by Boatswain Kuniyoshi Tanaka an ace with 17 aerial victories who later went onto fly the A5’s successor, the mighty Zero. Limited to 8 each in number, each model is also supplied with Japanese sentry figure RS053 to add more realism to your diorama.

Wings of War

New King & Country June Releases!

Sunday, June 10th, 2018

Romans, Gaul’s and Celt’s

At long last, here are the first of a great new range of Celts, Briton & Gauls proud and defiant in their undying hatred of and opposition to Imperial Rome…

  • RnB001 Those Who Are About To Die – A kneeling captured Gallic Warrior awaits his fate as a Roman Legionary stands over him with sword drawn and looks down on him pitilessly… Depending on the whim of the nearest Centurion this rebellious Gaul maybe sentenced to a life as a Galley slave … Or death in the arena… Or even a swift exit right here and now!
  • RnB002 Battle Trophies – Cruelty on the battlefield was not only practiced by the Romans… This Celtic Warrior carries two decapitated heads on his spear both as a warning to his enemies as well as a blood-thirsty trophy to his fighting skills.
  • RnB005 The Mounted Scout – This particular Barbarian warrior shields his eyes as he looks toward a distant Roman patrol marching through his tribal lands.
  • RnB006 Vercingetorix, Chief of the Gauls – Vercingetorix (82BC-46BC) was the chieftain of the Arverni tribe, who united all of the Gallic tribes in a revolt against the Roman armies of Julius Caesar.A born leader and a brave warrior he and his combined forces defeated the mighty Caesar at the Battle of Gergovia in 52BC and forced the Roman general to withdraw… at least for a short time.
    Soon however, Caesar and his Legions returned and, at the Siege of Alesia, Vercingetorix and his Gallic tribes were defeated and the Chieftain himself captured.
    Vercingetorix was later taken to Rome and held captive for 5 years before being paraded in Caesar’s ‘Triumph’ and then, as was the custom of the time, publicly executed.
    The K&C figure is directly based on a magnificent seven-metre-tall statue of the Gallic Chief erected on the orders of Napoleon Ⅲ in 1865 on the supposed site of the Siege of Alesia.
  • RnB007 Caradoc, Chief of the Britons – Caradoc , called “Caractacus” by the Romans was a 1st Century AD British Chieftain of Catuvellauni tribe, who led the British resistance to the Roman conquest. For almost 10 years, he combined ‘guerrilla’ warfare with set-piece battles to fight the might of Rome.
    After his final defeat he was handed over to the Romans and, like Vercingetorix before him was sentenced to death.
    Although a captive in Rome he was allowed to address the Roman senate. His speech made such an impression on the Senators that the Emperor Claudius himself pardoned him and granted him the privilege of living in peace in Rome… a rare honour indeed for a once rebellious leader!
  • RnB009X Roman Legioness (K&C Xclusive) – Something a little different from large, hairy barbarian chieftains!!!
    This foxy little ‘Legioness’ probably would never have marched with the Legionnaries themselves but would have been a welcome distraction in any Roman fort or campsite!


Robin Hood

Robin Hood and his Merrie Men are always welcoming to new recruits… Here are four such men who have fled to Sherwood Forest to escape the clutches of the dastardly Sheriff of Nottingham and his cruel Men-At-Arms…

  • RH041 Jack Godwin – A noted archer and an avid poacher of the King’s deer until almost caught-in-the-act by some of the Sheriff’s men.
    Fortunately for Jack he fled into the forest and met up with one of the Merrie Men. Here Jack moves stealthily forward ready to ‘poach’ one of the Sheriff’s men!
  • RH042 Fouke Fitzwilliam – Another good bowman and a fine addition to the ‘Sherwood Forest Archery Club’… Fouke lets loose an arrow at one more of the Sheriff’s scoundrels.
  • RH043 Owen of Oxley – Once a respectable and respected forester Owen has been forced to flee to the woods to avoid the Sheriff’s punitive taxes and to help feed his family… A handy man with an axe and that is his weapon of choice.
  • RH044 Arthur Bow-Bender – Arthur was about to be hung for the theft of a horse and stealing a bushel and a half of oats when he ran faster than the Sheriff’s men and into the depths of nearby Sherwood Forest.

Robin Hood

John Ford’s Cavalry

When we made the decision to ‘open up’ the availability of the original ‘John Ford’s Cavalry’ figure to ALL K&C Authorised Dealers around the world little did we know just how popular that would be … Well, following on from that K&C also received a fair number of requests for more mounted U.S. Cavalrymen to be produced to continue telling the story.

So, here are the first TWO pieces that will soon be joined in the coming months by SIX more.

All of these new figures were inspired by the work of one of Britain’s finest post war comic book illustrators of the 1950’s and 1960’s Denis McLonghlin.

I discovered Denis work in the mid 1950’s when I first saw his illustrations in the ‘Buffalo Bill Wild West Annual’… His attention to detail and knowledge of the Old West and all its myths and legends was second-to-none.

Later, I realized that Denis also obviously loved Western Movies especially John Ford ones! His U.S. Cavalry illustrations were often directly taken from some of Ford’s finest films, “She Wore A Yellow Ribbon”… “Fort Apache”… and “Rio Grande”.

The illustration at the start of this section of “DISPATCHES” shows a cavalry column similar to what K&C is going to be releasing now and over the coming months.

An important feature of these new mounted figures is that the heads of the figures are mounted on a short metal pin that allows them to be swiveled from side-to-side or even exchanged with other similar figures to allow maximum variety and difference. This will enable some fortunate collects to build as big or as long a column as they wish.

Here are the first two figures…

Among the SIX future U.S. Cavalry mounted figures are… One more officer… A Bugler… A “Stars’n’ Stripes” Standard Bearer sergeant… A Regimental Flag Bearer sergeant… Plus, Two different mounted Troopers.

  • TRW133 Halt! – This mounted officer raises his right arm to bring the column to a ‘halt’… Has he seen something in the distance or has his Indian Scout noticed something out of the ordinary…?
  • TRW136 The Guidon Bearer – Every good U.S. Cavalry movie must have at least one of these corporals with the troop or company pennant… In this particular case it belongs to “A” Company, 5th U.S. Cavalry.

John Ford’s Cavalry

Australian Light Horse

One small but cute addition to our Light Horse series…

  • AL101 Australian Light Horseman & Koala – Two iconic and historic symbols of the ‘Land Down Under’ come together to make this little set something unique and special…
    As reported at the time the Australian troops who left for the Middle East at the beginning of the First World War took with them all kinds of animal mascots to become favoured regimental pets, among them was the cuddly Koala… Here our Light Horse trooper gently cradles a small Koala. Several Koalas were brought over to Egypt with the Australian forces and although the animal’s favourite diet of Eucalyptus leaves were in short supply the Koalas were fed the same rations as the men’s horses… and appeared to thrive on it as well!

Australian Light Horse

Poland 1939

Following the release earlier this year of the Polish Cavalry from 1939 we decided to add a small selection of Polish Infantrymen to complement them…

  • FOB165 Polish Infantry Officer – Wearing the traditional peaked, four-pointed Polish military cap this officer takes careful aim with his automatic pistol at the advancing enemy.
  • FOB166 Fighting The Invaders – A 3-man rifle section opens fire on their German opponents… Their rifle is the 7.92mm Mauser 1898, itself of German origin but built under license in Poland. Each infantryman carries at least 90 rounds of ammunition in his six pouches as well as a full backpack with rolled and folded blanket.
  • FOB168 MG08 Machine Gun Team – This 2-man set operates the MG08 or Maschinegewehr 1908 which was originally the German Army’s standard machine gun of WW1.
    After the end of The Great War the fledgling Polish Army inherited much surplus German weaponry including the MG 08 and during the 1920’s and ‘30’s purchased even more. Although heavy and not easily moved around the battlefield these guns were strong, accurate and relatively simple to operate.

Poland 1939

German Wehrmacht

German Wehrmacht

Battle of Tarawa

In addition to our regular U.S.M.C. in the Pacific during WW2 K&C are offering a Limited number of ‘SPECIAL EDITION SETS’ showing our ‘Leathernecks’ wearing a mix of Marine Corps ‘Frogskin’ camouflage jackets and pants with the normal USMC HBT Fatigue Combat Uniforms.

During the Pacific Campaign Marines would often ‘mix’n’ match’ with whatever was clean and available at any given time.

These THREE ‘SPECIAL EDITION’ SETS add an extra degree of authenticity and realism to any USMC collection… Grab’em while you can.

  • USMC048(SE) Burn’ em up! – As one ‘Leatherneck’ blasts away with his Combat Shotgun, An NCO orders his Flame Thrower Marine to let loose at an enemy pillbox.
  • USMC049(SE) We’ll cover you! – A kneeling ‘Tommy-Gunner’ and a standing rifleman provide covering fire as the Marine with the BAR runs forward.
  • USMC050(SE) Eat this you sons of Nippon! – A kneeling BAR gunner fires off a burst as his buddy pitches a grenade at the opposition… the third Marine hits the deck!

Battle of TARAWA


Among the fighting vehicles the Marines brought with them to support their counter attack one of the most useful and important was the small, sturdy M274 “Mule”…

  • VN017 U.S.M.C. M274 MULE – The U.S. Military M274 1/2 Ton, 4×4 Utility Platform Truck was a 4-wheel drive gasoline – powered truck / tractor type of vehicle that could carry up to half a ton of weapons, ammunition or supplies with an off –road capability.
    First introduced in 1956 it saw plenty of action during the Vietnam conflict and remained in service until the 1980’s. As a completely open and exposed vehicle the M274, better known as “The Mule”, offered zero protection to the driver and was mainly operated in an infantry support role as previously stated.
    “Mules” could also be adapted to carry many types of conventional weapon including the M40 106mm Recoilless Rifle… TOW Anti Tank Missiles and even both the M60 and .50 Cal. Machine Guns.
    Our K&C model can carry a wounded Marine and a Navy Corpsman or a load of supplies… The “Mule” itself comes with its driver together with his M16.
  • VN018 Combat Casualty Set – A seriously wounded Marine lies unconscious as a Navy Corpsman does his best to keep him alive and shelter his body from enemy fire… an M16 lies by their side.

Vietnam – Tet’68

New John Jenkins June Releases!

Saturday, June 2nd, 2018


Soldiers who succeeded in capturing two enemies were awarded a uniform consisting of a body suit called a “tlahuiztli”, a tall conical cap called a “copilli” and a shield marked with black designs described as “hawk scratches”.

The Tlahuiztli was made of sewn cotton. Red, yellow, blue or green feathers were meticulously stitched to the cloth in the workshops of conquered city-states and sent to Tenochtitlan each year as tribute.

The Huaxtec area held a particular fascination for the Aztecs because it was rich in cotton. The goddess of spinners and weavers was called Tlazolteotl.

For this reason the soldiers thought it appropriate to wear hanks of un-spun cotton through their ear spools, as well as the “Yacameztli” or “nose moon” in gold in honour of her role as a patron of the moon.


Aztec Empire – Conquest of America


The Roman Republic was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome’s control expanded from the city’s immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world.

Roman government was headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate composed of appointed magistrates. As Roman society was very hierarchical by modern standards, the evolution of the Roman government was heavily influenced by the struggle between the patricians, Rome’s land-holding aristocracy, who traced their ancestry to the founding of Rome, and the plebeians, the far more numerous citizen-commoners. Over time, the laws that gave patricians exclusive rights to Rome’s highest offices were repealed or weakened, and leading plebeian families became full members of the aristocracy. The leaders of the Republic developed a strong tradition and morality requiring public service and patronage in peace and war, making military and political success inextricably linked. Many of Rome’s legal and legislative structures (later codified into the Justinian Code, and again into the Napoleonic Code) can still be observed throughout Europe and much of the world in modern nation states and international organizations.

During the first two centuries of its existence, the Roman Republic expanded through a combination of conquest and alliance, from central Italy to the entire Italian peninsula. By the following century, it included North Africa, most of the Iberian Peninsula, and what is now southern France. Two centuries after that, towards the end of the 1st century BC, it included the rest of modern France, Greece, and much of the eastern Mediterranean. By this time, internal tensions led to a series of civil wars, culminating with the assassination of Julius Caesar, which led to the transition from republic to empire.

Historians have variously proposed Julius Caesar’s crossing of the Rubicon River in 49 BC, Caesar’s appointment as dictator for life in 44 BC, and the defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. However, most use the same date as did the ancient Romans themselves, the Roman Senate’s grant of extraordinary powers to Octavian and his adopting the title Augustus in 27 BC, as the defining event ending the Republic.

The Roman army of the late Republic refers to the armed forces deployed by the late Roman Republic, from the beginning of the first century B.C. until the establishment of the Imperial Roman army by Augustus in 30 B.C.

Shaped by major social, political, and economic change, the late Republic saw the transition from the Roman army of the mid-Republic, which was a temporary levy based solely on the conscription of Roman citizens, to the Imperial Roman army of the Principate, which was a standing, professional army based on the recruitment of volunteers

Continuous expansion, wars, conflicts, and the acquisition of a growing, overseas territory led to an increasing degree of professionalism within the army.

The late-Republic saw much of its action taking place within the Roman borders and between Roman commanders as they vied for control of the republic. There was a significant intertwining of military and politics in the acquisition and maintenance of power. After the Social War, and following the establishment of the First Triumvirate by Julius Caesar, Licinius Crassus, and Pompeius Magnus, there grew an emphasis on the expansion of a united republic toward regions such as Britain and Parthia. The effort to quell the invasions and revolts of non-Romans persisted throughout the period, from Marius’ battles with the wandering Germans in Italy to Caesar’s campaign in Gaul.

After the completion of the Social War in 88 B.C., Roman citizenship was granted to all its Italian allies (the socii) south of the Po River. The alae were abolished, and the socii were from now on recruited directly into uniformly organized and equipped legions. The non-Italian allies that had long fought for Rome (e.g. Gallic and Numidian cavalry) continued to serve alongside the legions but remained irregular units under their own leaders.

For reasons that remain uncertain to this day, the structure of the Roman army changed dramatically during the late Republic. The maniple, which had been the standard unit throughout the mid-Republic, was replaced by the cohort as the new standard tactical unit of the legions, while the Roman citizen cavalry (equites) and light infantry (velites) disappeared from the battlefield. Traditionally, many of these changes have been attributed to the reforms of Gaius Marius , but some scholars argue that they may have happened far more gradually

Roman Army of the Late Republic



Roman Army of the Late Republic


“The surrender that changed the world”.

In October 1777, a 6,000 strong British army surrendered in defeat after the American victory at the Battles of Saratoga.

For the first time in history a British General surrendered his sword

The German mercenaries were firing steadily from their redoubt.

From the rear came the crack of rifles. A general mounted and, his sword flashing, led the riflemen into the redoubt. German resistance collapsed. The Battle of Saratoga was over.

The day was Oct. 7th, 1777. Twelve days later, “Gentleman Johnny” Burgoyne, the gifted, courageous British commander, surrendered to the American general, Horatio Gates. Thus ended the most
ambitious and dangerous offensive launched by Britain in the Revolution. The attack on the redoubt was the last of a series of actions that constituted the Battle of Saratoga, considered the turning point of the Revolution.

The rifle fire that decimated the Germans awoke echoes around the World. The French court, friendly to any who fought their ancient British enemy, finally was convinced that France’s interest lay in entering the war on the side of the Americans.

Following intense fighting with the Continental Army in September, the British Army fortified themselves behind two defensive redoubts- the larger, better defended Balcarres Redoubt, and the weaker
Breymann Redoubt.

American forces, led by General Benedict Arnold, managed to take the Breymann Redoubt, which gave them a strong position behind the British lines. The loss of the Redoubt rendered the British position untenable. The British Army was forced to pull back to the river, from which position they would attempt to retreat north the next morning.

Morgan’s Riflemen

Morgan’s Riflemen or Morgan’s Rifles, were an elite light infantry unit Commanded by General Daniel morgan in the American Revolutionary War. It served a vital role, because it was equipped with what was then the cutting-edge rifle instead of muskets, allowing superior accuracy at up to ten times the distance of the typical muskets of the troops of the day.

The Riflemen proved pivotal in several engagements, and helped turn the main battle by attacking from the right flank, which was instrumental in taking the Breymann Redoubt.

Morgan’s Riflemen

Continental Army

The Continental Army was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America. Established by a resolution of the Congress on June 14, 1775, it was created to coordinate the military efforts of the Thirteen Colonies in their revolt against the rule of Great Britain. The Continental Army was supplemented by local militias and troops that remained under control of the individual states or were otherwise independent. General George Washington was the commander-in-chief of the army throughout the war.

The Continental Army consisted of soldiers from all 13 colonies and, after 1776, from all 13 states. When the American Revolutionary War began at the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775, the colonial revolutionaries did not have an army. Previously, each colony had relied upon the militia, made up of part-time citizen-soldiers, for local defense, or the raising of temporary “provincial regiments” during specific crises such as the French and Indian War of 1754–63. As tensions with Great Britain increased in the years leading to the war, colonists began to reform their militias in preparation for the perceived potential conflict. Training of militiamen increased after the passage of the Intolerable Acts in 1774. Colonists such as Richard Henry Lee proposed forming a national militia force, but the First Continental Congress rejected the idea.

The Continental Army of 1777–80 evolved out of several critical reforms and political decisions that came about when it became apparent that the British were sending massive forces to put an end to the American Revolution. The Continental Congress passed the “Eighty-eight Battalion Resolve”, ordering each state to contribute one-battalion regiments in proportion to their population, and Washington subsequently received authority to raise an additional 16 battalions. Enlistment terms extended to three years or to “the length of the war” to avoid the year-end crises that depleted forces (including the notable near-collapse of the army at the end of 1776, which could have ended the war in a Continental, or American, loss by forfeit).

Three of the Continental Army units which took part in the assault on the Breymann Redoubt, were the 2nd Massachussetts, The 2nd New York, and The 1st Canadian Regiment.

2nd New York Regiment

The 2nd New York Regiment was authorized on May 25, 1775, and formed at Albany from June 28 to August 4 for service with the Continental Army under the command of Colonel Goose Van Schaick. This was one of four regiments raised by the Province of New York in the early summer of 17775, for the Continental service.

The four New York regiments were brigaded under Brigadier General Montgomery.

Each regiment had a different coloured uniform coat.

The enlistments of the first establishment ended on December 31, 1775

The second establishment of the 2nd New York regiment was authorized on January 19, 1776.

The regiment would see action in the Invasion of Canada, Battle of Valcour Island, Battle of Saratoga, Battle of Monmouth, the Sullivan Expedition and the Battle of Yorktown. The regiment would be furloughed, June 2, 1783, at Newburgh, New York and disbanded November 15, 1783.

2nd New York Regiment


This regiment of the Continental Line, under the command of Colonel Moses Hazen, was recruited at large during 1776, and was known as “Congress’s Own,” because it was not attached to the quota of any one of the states. It was composed of men from all the states and from Canada, but most were from Pennsylvania and Canada. Throughout the war, it was known as a splendid command.

The uniform of the battalion companies until 1779, was brown faced with white. After that date the facings were changed to red.

In August 1777, the regiment was assigned to Benedict Arnold on his expedition in relief of the Siege of Fort Stanwix. It then saw service in both Battles of Saratoga as part of Ebenezer_Learned’s brigade.


2nd Massachusetts Regiment

The 2nd Massachusetts Regiment (Bailey’s Regiment) was formed by consolidating the remnants of the 7th Continental Regiment; Peters’ Company, 13th Continental Regiment; and Clap’s Company, 21st Continental Regiment; with the remnant of the 23rd Continental Regiment. (Peters’ and Clap’s Companies were reorganized, respectively, as Warren’s and Dunham’s Companies, Bailey’s Regiment). The commanding officer, Colonel John Bailey, had been the lieutenant colonel, later the colonel, of Thomas’s Regiment in 1775 and colonel of the 23rd Continental Regiment in 1776. As the 23rd Continental Regiment, reorganizing as the 2rd Massachusetts Regiment, it served in Glover’s Brigade at Princeton. Reorganization was completed in the spring of 1777, and the regiment was ordered to the Northern Department. In the summer of 1777 it was assigned to the 4th Massachusetts Brigade under Brigadier General Learned. The regiment retreated toward Saratoga after the American evacuation of Fort Ticonderoga in July, and marched under Arnold to the relief of Fort Stanwix in August. Following the Saratoga campaign the regiment marched south to join Washington in the Middle Department. It served in the Philadelphia campaign and wintered at Valley Forge. In 1778 it served in the Monmouth campaign. After November 1778 the regiment was stationed in the Highlands, but in 1781 its light company was assigned to Lieutenant Colonel Elijah Vose’s Battalion, Corps of Light Infantry, which served in the Yorktown campaign. The regiment was disbanded at West Point, New York, on November 3, 1783.

The size of the Massachusetts Line varied from as many as 27 active regiments (at the outset of the war) to four (at its end). For most of the war after the Siege of Boston (April 1775 to March 1776) almost all of these units were deployed outside Massachusetts, serving as far north as Quebec City, as far west as present-day central Upstate New York, and as far south as Yorktown, Virginia.
Massachusetts line troops were involved in most of the war’s major battles north of Chesapeake Bay, and were present at the decisive Siege of Yorktown in 1781. General officers of the line included Major Generals Artemas Ward, William Heath, and Benjamin Lincoln, and Brigadier Generals John Glover and John Nixon.

2nd Massachusetts Regiment


A combined battalion of grenadiers under Von Breymann, with four musketeer regiments (Prince Friedrich, von Rhetz, von Specht and von Riedesel) were sent to Canada, along with a single dragoon regiment (Prince Ludwig Ernst), and a light infantry battalion (von Barner).

On April 3, 1776 the fleet of thirty sails carrying the German troops set sail from Portsmouth and met the forty sail fleet of English troops at Plymouth also heading to Canada. Land was sighted on May 12th and Quebec was reached on June 1st.

General von Riedesel, with orders from General Burgoyne disembarked the Prince Ludwig Ernst Dragoon Regiment on June 6th to strengthen the Quebec garrison. The two first division musketeer regiments and grenadiers were to continue on to Trois Rivieres. Governor Carleton gave General von Riedesel command of a corps consisting of the regiment von Riedesel and Hesse Hanau regiments, the Brunswick Grenadier battalion, the British McClean regiment, a division of Canadian troops and a mixed group of Abenakis, Iroquois, Ottowas, and Huron.

This corps departed for Trois Rivieres on June 7th and was ordered to move up the south side of the St. Lawrence, while Burgoyne and the other English troops moved up the north side of the St. Lawrence, to relieve Montreal that was besieged by the Americans.

The Breymann Redoubt was defended by a small force of Grenadiers, from the Regiments Von Specht, and the Regiment Von Rhetz.


Knights of the Skies

The LFG Roland C.II, usually known as the Walfisch (Whale), was an advanced German reconnaissance aircraft of World War I. It was manufactured by Luft-Fahrzeug-Gesellschaft G.m.b.H.
LFG, later changed their name to Roland to avoid confusion with LVG (Luft-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft).

They were responsible for some of the most aerodynamic and innovative aircraft designs of the Great War. The “Walfisch” was designed as aerodynamically as possible at the time, which resulted in a smooth fuselage featuring many compound curves and mounting the top wings to the fuselage to avoid drag from the struts.

The C.II had much lower drag than comparable aircraft of its time. It featured a monocoque fuselage built with an outer skin of two layers of thin plywood strips at an angle to each other (known as a Wickelrumpf, or “wrapped body” design)

This had both lower drag and better strength per weight than typical aircraft of the time, but it was relatively slow and expensive to build. (This approach was further developed in the de Havilland Mosquito of World War II.) The deep fuselage completely filled the vertical gap between the wing panel center sections, eliminating any need for cabane struts commonly used in biplanes, and gave the aircraft its “whale” nickname. Struts and wires were reduced, without suffering the weight penalty of cantilever wings, like those used on the pioneering all-metal Junkers J 1 of late 1915. There was even some attempt to flair the wings into the fuselage, to eliminate dead air space, a feature prominently missing from the Schneider Trophy contestants of the following decade. The engineer in charge of the design was Tantzen, who was a student of Ludwig Prandtl, the founder of mathematical aerodynamics and the one to introduce the concept of boundary layer.

The C.II was powered by a single 160 hp (120 kW) Mercedes D III, providing a top speed of 165 km/h (103 mph), a ceiling of 4,000 metres (13,000 ft) and an endurance of four hours.

The C.II entered service in the spring of 1916. Operationally, handling was reported as difficult but performance was relatively good. Due to the crew positions with eyes above the upper wing, upward visibility was excellent, but downward visibility was poor. It was also used in a fighter escort role and had a crew of two, pilot and observer/gunner.

Because of its speed, when it was first introduced, it could be intercepted only from above. Because of the lack of downward visibility, it was best attacked by diving below and coming up at it

Albert Ball, whose first victim was a C.II, said in the latter half of 1916 that it was “the best German machine now”.


Knights Of The Skies – WWI

WWI – British

British Forces

Second World War Aircraft Collection

VF-84 flew F4U Corsairs and was formed around a nucleus of veterans of VF-17, the Jolly Rogers. The new squadron’s commanding officer was Lt. Cdr. Roger R.Hedrick, former executive officer of VF-17.

VF-84 was assigned to the USS Bunker Hill. As part of Task Force 58, the carrier and Carrier Air Group 84 (CVG-84) participated in the final drive across the central Pacific. Roger Hedrick was promoted to head CVG-84 on the combat loss of the air group’s commanding officer, and Lt. Cdr. Raymond “Ted” Hill took over the fighter squadron.

VF-84 took part in the invasion of Iwo Jima; raids on Tokyo and other targets in Japan; the discovery and sinking of the Japanese battleship Yamato and support of the invasion of Okinawa, including combat air patrol over the invasion fleet to defend against Kamikaze attack, ground support, and combat air patrol over targets on Okinawa.

On 11 May 1945, while off Okinawa, two Japanese kamikazes struck the Bunker Hill in quick succession, with a bomb penetrating to the pilots’ ready room, killing 22 members of VF-84. Both the Bunker Hill (then the TF-58 flagship) and CAG-84 were knocked out of the war. Although VF-84 was reformed in July 1945 as an F6F Hellcat squadron, the war ended while it was still in training. While in the Pacific, VF-84 was credited with 92 kills for a loss of 4 aircraft and nine of the squadron’s pilots became aces.

JJD Second World War Aircraft Collection

Second World War Aircraft Carrier Bases

The Imperial Japanese Navy was a pioneer in naval aviation, having commissioned the world’s first built-from-the-keel-up carrier, the Hosho. Throughout the 1920s and 1930s, it experimented with its carriers, perfecting their design and construction. As a result, by the time Japan entered World War II and attacked the United States at Pearl Harbor in 1941, it possessed a fantastically effective naval aviation force.

Second World War Aircraft Carrier Bases