War of the Roses
- HLANC-015 — The Battle of Bosworth Field 1485, THE RETINUE OF HENRY TUDOR, EARL OF RICHMOND LANCASTRIAN ARCHERS
- NFYORK-015 — The Battle of Bosworth Field 1485, THE RETINUE OF JOHN HOWARD, 1st DUKE OF NORFOLK, YORKIST ARCHERS
- OXLANC-015 — The Battle of Bosworth Field 1485, THE RETINUE OF JOHN DE VERE, 13th EARL OF OXFORD, LANCASTRIAN ARCHERS
- RYORK-015 — The Battle of Bosworth Field 1485, THE RETINUE OF KING RICHARD III, YORKIST ARCHERS
Wars of the Roses 1455-1487
French & Indian Wars – Provincial Regiments
The 60th (Royal American) Regiment of Foot, better known under its later name, The King’s Royal Rifle Corps, has long been associated with Canada. After Braddock’s defeat by the French and Indians in 1755, authority was granted to raise a regiment of four battalions to be recruited in Germany and from German colonists in North America. The regiment was named the 62nd, or Royal American, Regiment of Foot; but it was re-designated the 60th (Royal American) Regiment of Foot in February 1757. Recruiting for the Royal Americans in North America was disappointing, and more than half its strength was drafted from men rejected by British regiments in Ireland. From this unlikely collection of foreigners and cast-offs was fashioned one of the most renowned corps of the British Army.
Provincial Regiments 1759
WWI – British
WWI – French
Chemical weapons in World War I were primarily used to demoralize, injure, and kill entrenched defenders, against whom the indiscriminate and generally slow-moving or static nature of gas clouds would be most effective. The types of weapons employed ranged from disabling chemicals, such as tear gas and the severe mustard gas, to lethal agents like phosgene and chlorine. This chemical warfare was a major component of the first global war and first total war of the 20th century. The killing capacity of gas was limited, with four percent of combat deaths caused by gas. Gas was unlike most other weapons of the period because it was possible to develop effective countermeasures, such as gas masks. In the later stages of the war, as the use of gas increased, its overall effectiveness diminished
The use of poison gas performed by all major belligerents throughout World War I constituted war crimes as its use violated the 1899 Hague Declaration Concerning Asphyxiating Gases and the 1907 Hague Convention on Land Warfare, which prohibited the use of “poison or poisoned weapons” in warfare.
WWI – German
The STURMPANZER A7V was a tank introduced by Germany in 1918, during World War I. One hundred chassis were ordered in early 1917, ten to be finished as fighting vehicles with armoured bodies, and the remainder as cargo carriers. The number to be armoured was later increased to 20. They were used in action from March to October of that year, and were the only tanks produced by Germany in World War I to be used in operations.
Unlike modern tanks, the A7V has no turret. Instead, it has a cupola for the commander and driver, and its main gun, a 57mm Maxim-Nordenfelt, is carried in a mounting in the front, allowing limited traverse. Six Maxim 08 machine guns are carried in mountings, two on each side and two to the rear.
The crew normally consisted of up to seventeen soldiers and one officer: commander (officer, typically a lieutenant), driver, mechanic, mechanic/signaller, twelve infantrymen (six machine gunners, six loaders), and two artillerymen (main gunner and loader).
Sturmpanzer A7V, named “Mephisto”, and numbered 506, was originally a 1st Lot, standard-production model produced by the Rochling factory, and was initially a female tank, only armed with machine guns. It was to be converted to a “buck-mount” male, and is today the only original A7V tank to survive.
In April 1918, the tank was issued to Abt.3, and was repainted and named “Mephisto”, with its upper left prow decorated just before the Battle of Villers-Bretonneux, with the emblem of a red devil running with a snatched British rhomboid tank.
It was to participate in the Battle of Villers-Bretonneux, but after a successful advance, which saw it take a large number of prisoners, it became disabled as it plunged into a large shell hole. The crew abandoned the tank, and went on to fight as an assault party.
Initially the tank remained inside the German lines, but was too close to the frontline for recovery. During this time it was hit by at least one shell in the forward fighting compartment, and Australian reports also claim that the tank was used as a strongpoint by German infantry.
The 26th Battalion of the 7th Brigade, mostly from Queensland, hatched a plan to capture it. In July 1918, under cover of an artillery barrage, the Australian infantry and two British vehicles (either Gun Carriers or Mark IV tanks) moved forward and dragged it back to their lines; the Germans were still in sight of the tank and firing at them. They had to don gas masks after poison gas was deployed.
The soldiers who captured Mephisto later hammered their names into the front armour: “TANK BOYS \ H. WILLIAMS, J. BYFORD, A. MCFARLANE, J. PICKLES, H. DUTTON, T. HUGHES
The tank was then graffitied by Australian troops, with a painting of the AIF rising sun emblem. Machinations began to take the tank back to Australia, but the British wanted to keep it for the Imperial War Museum. It was quickly put on a ship destined for Sydney with the Australian infantry that captured it. The ship was supposed to deliver it to Sydney, with plans for it to go to the war memorial in Canberra’s display, but it was diverted to Brisbane and unloaded there. Two steam traction engines moved it from the ship to the Queensland Museum, dragging it on its tracks.
Turkish hand grenades found on the Galliploi battlefield were usually simple hollow iron spheres filled with explosives. This was the standard type of grenade used by the Turkish Army at Gallipoli during the First World War. The matchhead was struck on an abrasive igniter carried by each bomber, which lit the five-second fuze. Initially, ten-second fuzes were used, but these sometimes allowed the British and Australian troops to return the bomb to the Turkish trenches.
“A feature of the fighting at Quinn’s was the bombing. In the early days the advantage here lay with the Turks as the Anzacs possessed no grenades while the Turks had a seemingly endless supply of cricket-ball shaped bombs.”
Battle of Gallipoli 1915