WWI – British
- GWB-040 — The Royal Garrison Artillery, BL 60-Pounder Heavy Field Gun – The Ordnance BL 60-pounder was a British 5 inch (127 mm) heavy field gun designed in 1903-05 to provide a new capability that had been partially met by the interim QF 4.7 inch Gun. It was designed for both horse draft and mechanical traction and served throughout the First World War in the main theatres. It remained in service with British and Commonwealth forces in the inter-war period and in frontline service with British and South African batteries until 1942 being superseded by the BL 4.5 inch Medium Gun.
Total wartime production was 1,773 guns (i.e. barrels) and 1,397 carriages
- GWB-062 — London Bus Passengers #1
- GWB-062D — London Bus Passengers Set #1
WWI – Australian
The Stokes mortar was a British trench mortar invented by Sir Wilfred Stokes KBE that was issued to the British, Commonwealth and U.S. armies, as well as the Portuguese Expeditionary Corps (CEP), during the later half of the First World War. The 3-inch trench mortar is a smooth-bore, muzzle-loading weapon for high angles of fire
The Stokes mortar was a simple weapon, consisting of a smoothbore metal tube fixed to a base plate (to absorb recoil) with a lightweight bipod mount. When a mortar bomb was dropped into the tube, an impact sensitive primer in the base of the bomb would make contact with a firing pin at the base of the tube, and detonate, firing the bomb towards the target.
The barrel is a seamless drawn-steel tube necked down at the breech or base end. To the breech end is fitted a base cap, within which is secured a firing pin protruding into the barrel. The caps at each end of the bomb cylinder were 81 mm diameter. The bomb was fitted with a modified hand grenade fuze on the front, with a perforated tube containing a propellant charge and an impact-sensitive cap at the rear.
Range was determined by the amount of propellant charge used and the angle of the barrel. A basic propellant cartridge was used for all firing, and covered short ranges. Up to four additional “rings” of propellant were used for incrementally greater ranges. See range tables below. The four rings were supplied with the cartridge and gunners discarded the rings which were not needed.
British Empire units had 1,636 Stokes mortars in service on the Western Front at the Armistice.
In World War I, the Stokes Mortar could fire as many as 25 bombs per minute and had a maximum range of 800 yards firing the original cylindrical unstabilised projectile. By World War II, it could fire as many as 30 bombs per minute, and had a range of over 2,500 yards with some shell types
Australian Imperial Force
WWI – French Army
WWI – German Army
Although Germany was slow to develop its own tank force, there was a need to produce a range of methods aimed at neutralizing the effect of the Allied armour. This included concentrated charges, armour piercing bullets, individual field guns in a close combat role, and finally anti tank rifles.
Sharpshooters or snipers were often used to pick off tank crews or their accompanying infantry after the initial damage had been done by the other weapons.
Battle of Gallipoli 1915
John “Jack” Simpson Kirkpatrick (6 July 1892 – 19 May 1915), who served under the name John Simpson, was a stretcher bearer with the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) during the Gallipoli Campaign in World War I. After landing at Anzac Cove on 25 April 1915, he obtained a donkey, who he called “Murphy” and began carrying wounded British Empire soldiers from the front line to the beach, for evacuation.
He continued this work for three and a half weeks, often under fire, until he was killed, during the Third attack on Anzac Cove.
Simpson and his Donkey are a part of the “Anzac legend”.
Battle of Gallipoli 1915
William Edward ‘Billy’ Sing, DCM (2 March 1886 – 19 May 1943) was a part Chinese/ Australian soldier who served in the Australian Imperial Force during World War I, best known as a sniper during the Gallipoli Campaign He took at least 150 confirmed kills during that campaign, and may have had over 200 kills in total. One contemporary estimate put his tally at close to 300 kills
A biography by John Hamilton, Gallipoli Sniper: The life of Billy Sing, was published in 2008.
Biographer John Hamilton described the Turkish terrain thus: “It is a country made for snipers. The Anzac and Turkish positions often overlooked each other. Each side sent out marksmen to hunt and stalk and snipe, to wait and shoot and kill, creeping with stealth through the green and brown shrubbery …” Sing was partnered with spotters Ion ‘Jack’ Idriess and, later, Tom Sheehan. The spotter’s task was to observe (spot) the surrounding terrain and alert the sniper to potential targets. Idriess described Sing as “a little chap, very dark, with a jet black moustache and goatee beard. A picturesque looking mankiller. He is the crack shot of the Anzacs.”
Knights of the Skies
The Fokker E.III was the main variant of the Eindecker (monoplane) fighter aircraft of World War I. It entered service on the Western Front in December 1915 and was also supplied to Austria-Hungary and Turkey.
The E.III was the first type to arrive in sufficient numbers to form small specialist fighter units, Kampfeinsitzer Kommandos (KEK) in early 1916. Previously, Eindeckers had been allocated singly, just as the E.I and E.II had been, to the front-line Feldflieger Abteilungen that carried out reconnaissance duties. On 10 August 1916, the first German Jagdstaffeln (single-seat fighter squadrons) were formed, initially equipped with various early fighter types, including a few E.IIIs, which were by then outmoded and being replaced by more modern fighters. Standardisation in the Jagdstaffeln (and any real success) had to wait for the availability in numbers of the Albatros D.I and Albatros D.II in early 1917.
Fokker production figures state that 249 E.IIIs were manufactured
Developed in April 1915, the Eindecker (“Monoplane”) was the first purpose-built German fighter aircraft and the first aircraft to be fitted with synchronizer gear, enabling the pilot to fire a machine gun through the arc of the propeller without striking the blades. The Eindecker granted the German Air Service a degree of air superiority from July 1915 until early 1916. This period was known as the “Fokker Scourge,” during which Allied aviators regarded their poorly armed aircraft as “Fokker Fodder”. The Eindecker was based on Fokker’s unarmed A.III scout (itself following very closely the design of the French Morane-Saulnier H shoulder-wing monoplane) which was fitted with a synchronizer mechanism controlling a single Parabellum MG14 machine gun.
Anthony Fokker personally demonstrated the system on 23 May 1915, having towed the prototype aircraft behind his touring car to a military airfield near Berlin.
Max Immelmann scored his first victory flying the “Eindecker.” Scourge of the air during the winter of 1915, the Fokker E.I was the first aircraft armed with a synchronized, forward firing machine gun. German pilots were ordered not to fly it across enemy lines for fear the Allies would capture the secrets of the synchronizing gear. Followed by the E.II, E.III and E.IV, the Eindecker was underpowered and slow but could out turn most of its opponents.
Allied aviators who faced it called themselves “Fokker Fodder” The Eindecker ruled the skies until the Nieuports and SPADs were developed.
Knights Of The Skies – WWI
Raid on St Francis
Raid on Saint Francis, 1759
THE SOUTH CAROLINA PROVINCIAL REGIMENT
On July 6, 1757, the South Carolina Provincial Regiment was created by an act of the Assembly. The regiment was to be made up of 7 companies of 100 men each. The regiment was commanded by Lieutenant-colonel Probart Howarth. Howarth, a veteran of Braddock’s campaign, also held a commission as lieutenant in the Independent Companies.
”They have passed a Vote here for granting a Sum for raising 700 Men subject to the Orders & Disposal of Lord Loudoun, have put them on the same Establishment with our Troops, and have given your old Acquaintance Howarth the Command of Them, as Lieut. Colo. & Commandant of the So. Carolina Provincials.” (George Washington Papers (memory.loc.gov/), Captain George Mercer to George Washington, August 17, 1757.)
Each company was led by 1 captain , 2 lieutenants and 1 ensign. Each company also had 4 sergeants, 4 corporals and 2 drummers.
The regiment was also known as the Buffs, due to the facing colour of their uniforms. Men were only recruited with great difficulty, and by mid 1758 the regiment contained only about 550 privates. Attempts were made to fill up the regiment by enlisting vagrants.
THE PENNSYLVANIAN PROVINCIAL REGIMENT
July 1755, after Braddock’s defeat in an ambush on the Monongahela, Pennsylvanians, who until then had no militia forces, started to organise a defence. The governor gave orders to build forts at Carlisle and Shippensburg and to organize 4 companies of volunteers. In October, the French and Canadiens with their Indian Allies began to launch raids on the border of Pennsylvania. On November 25, a “Militia Act” was passed in response to the border massacres perpetrated by the Susquehanah and Ohio Delawares. On November 27, the Assembly of Pennsylvania voted funds to build forts and to replace militia companies with a Provincial Regiment which was originally formed from pre-existing volunteers and militia around the Susquehanah River. Most men enlisted for less than six months.
In March 1756, the regiment was formally organised into two battalions: the one east of the river were commanded by Lieutenant-colonel Conrad Weiser, while the one to the west of the river was led by Colonel John Armstrong. Later, a third battalion was raised under Colonel William Clapham, to defend the area of Augusta, Pennsylvania. Afterwards, the Pennsylvania Provincials were reorganized into 2 regiments: the 1st (Augusta) regiment, formed of one battalion under Clapham, and the 2nd, comprising the other two battalions.
THE CONNECTICUT PROVINCIAL REGIMENT
In August 1755, the first and second regiments of Connecticut Provincials (a total of about 850 men) took part in the expedition against Fort Saint-Frédéric (present-day Crown Point) led by William Johnson of New York. A fort initially known as Fort Lyman (soon renamed Fort Edward) was built on the Hudson River at the carrying place leading to Lake Saint-Sacrement (present-day Lake George).
At the beginning of September, Johnson’s force resumed its advance and reached Lake Saint-Sacrement. On September 8, part of his force was ambushed by a French force under Dieskau. The Colonials were badly mauled and retired to Johnson’s camp. The French followed up but their attack on Johnson’s camp was repulsed, Dieskau being wounded and captured. Johnson did not organize any counteroffensive but built Fort William Henry on the shore of Lake Saint-Sacrement.
In September, Connecticut raised and sent about 1,400 militia to reinforce Johnson at Fort William Henry. On November 27, when Johnson retreated to the Hudson, he left contingents from each province to garrison Fort William Henry during the winter.
For the campaign of 1756, Connecticut raised 2,500 men.
For the campaign of 1757, Connecticut raised 1,400 men. In mid-August, after the fall of Fort William Henry, Connecticut assemble 5,000 militia who were sent to reinforce General Webb on the frontier.
On March 8 1758, a special assembly at New Haven resolved to raise 5,000 Connecticut Provincials for the incoming campaign. These were formed into 4 regiments, each consisting of 12 companies.
In July 1758, the 4 Provincial regiments from Connecticut took part in the expedition against Carillon (present-day Ticonderoga). On July 5, they embarked at the head of Lake George. On July 6 at daybreak, the British flotilla reached the narrow channel leading into Lake Champlain near Fort Carillon and disembarkation began at 9:00 a.m.. On July 8, they fought in the disastrous Battle of Carillon. At daybreak on July 9, the British army re-embarked and retreated to the head of the lake where it reoccupied the camp it had left a few days before.
On March 8 1759, a special assembly at Hartford resolved to raise 3,600 Connecticut Provincials for the campaign. They were formed into 4 regiments, each of 10 companies. On May 10, on General Amherst’s insistance, an additional 1,000 men were raised and integrated into the 4 existing regiments. The Connecticut Provincials, joined Amherst’s Army for a renewed attempt against Carillon.
Raid on Saint Francis, 1759